付文江, 卢增雄, 吴晓斌, 黄宇峰, 高斌, 陈学同. 基于PSD的六自由度位移测量解耦方法研究[J]. 红外与激光工程, 2024, 53(5): 20240061. DOI: 10.3788/IRLA20240061
引用本文: 付文江, 卢增雄, 吴晓斌, 黄宇峰, 高斌, 陈学同. 基于PSD的六自由度位移测量解耦方法研究[J]. 红外与激光工程, 2024, 53(5): 20240061. DOI: 10.3788/IRLA20240061
Fu Wenjiang, Lu Zengxiong, Wu Xiaobin, Huang Yufeng, Gao Bin, Chen Xuetong. Research on decoupling method for six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement based on PSD[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2024, 53(5): 20240061. DOI: 10.3788/IRLA20240061
Citation: Fu Wenjiang, Lu Zengxiong, Wu Xiaobin, Huang Yufeng, Gao Bin, Chen Xuetong. Research on decoupling method for six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement based on PSD[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2024, 53(5): 20240061. DOI: 10.3788/IRLA20240061

基于PSD的六自由度位移测量解耦方法研究

Research on decoupling method for six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement based on PSD

  • 摘要: 基于位置敏感探测器(Position Sensitive Detector, PSD)的六自由度(6 Degree of Freedom, 6DOF)位移测量对紧凑空间内精密位移台初始位置和姿态的精密测量具有重要作用。精密位移台位移与PSD上光斑位移之间非线性关系的解耦是实现精密位移台亚微米及微弧度位移测量精度的关键。根据PSD与6DOF精密位移台上角锥棱镜之间的位置关系,构建了6DOF位移测量方案,建立了6DOF位移台位移与PSD上光斑位移之间的精确对应关系模型,采用数值计算法对该模型进行解耦求解,并与小角度近似法进行了对比分析。结果表明,当6DOF位移台单自由度位移范围为±10 mm和±10 mrad时,数值计算法引入的解算误差最大值为10−17 mm和10−15~10−16 mrad量级,而小角度近似法引入的解算误差最大值为5.39 μm和35.5 μrad;在此基础上,采用蒙特卡洛法以随机均匀分布方式产生10000组六自由度位移进行分析,表明数值计算法引入的解算误差平均值为10−17 mm和10−17 mrad量级,而小角度近似法引入的解算误差平均值为10−3~10−6 mm和10−5 mrad量级,其中z方向解算误差达到4.4 μm,RxRy方向解算误差达到28 μrad,故小角度近似法无法满足上述位移测量精度要求。所提出的基于数值计算法的解耦方法对实现6DOF位移台的高精度位移测量具有重要意义。

     

    Abstract:
      Objective  The six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement technology based on position sensitive detector (PSD) and corner cube retroreflector plays an important role in the precise measurement of the initial position and attitude of the precision displacement stage in a compact space. Decoupling between the displacement of 6 degree of freedom (6DOF) displacement stage and the displacement of light spot on PSD is the key to realize precise measurement. In order to reduce the complexity of establishing and solving the model, the small angle approximation method or first-order Taylor series expansion can be used to transform nonlinear trigonometric function terms into linear terms, but this method is not universal enough to meet the needs of high-precision measurement in large ranges. In order to meet the demand of high-precision measurement under large angle, it is necessary to establish a more accurate theoretical model and solve it.
      Methods  Aiming at the six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement system, the theoretical model is accurately described by trigonometric function rather than small angle approximation, and the analytical relationship between the six-degree-of-freedom displacement of 6DOF stage and the change of the spot position on PSD is derived, and a more accurate measurement model is established. When solving the model, the numerical calculation method is used to complete the model solution, which affords remarkably higher accuracy than the traditional small angle approximation method. In the model simulation, the calculation errors introduced by numerical calculation method and small angle approximation method under the single-degree-of-freedom displacement of 6DOF stage are compared. For six-degree-of-freedom displacement, Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare the accuracy of numerical calculation method and small angle approximation method.
      Results and Discussions  Through a 6×9 transformation matrix, the relationship between the displacement of 6DOF stage and the change of spot position on the three PSD can be established. Single-degree-of-freedom displacement will introduce calculation errors in all six degrees of freedom. For the translation displacement in the range of ±10 mm, the calculation error introduced by numerical calculation method and small angle approximation method can be ignored. For the rotational displacement in the range of ±10 mrad, the translational displacement errors introduced by the numerical calculation method are all less than 1.48×10−16 mm, and the rotational displacement errors are all less than 1.73×10−15 mrad, the maximum error is far less than the sub-micron accuracy requirements of the system. But the maximum error of the translational displacement calculation introduced by the small angle approximation method is 5.39 μm, which does not meet the sub-micron accuracy (Tab.2). For six-degree-of-freedom displacement, the translation displacement errors and rotation displacement errors obtained by the numerical method are less than 1.6×10−14 mm and 1.1×10−13 mrad, respectively, and the maximum error is much less than the accuracy requirement of the submicron level of the system. The accuracy of the numerical method depends on the number of iterations set by the computer and the error introduced by the computer in floating-point operation. However, the maximum error of translational displacement obtained by small angle approximation method is about 5.3 μm, which can not ensure the measurement accuracy of submicron level (Fig.6). Therefore, although the small angle approximation method is simple, its accuracy is much lower than that of the numerical method. Because the small angle approximation method provides iterative initial values for the numerical calculation method, the numerical calculation method has natural advantages in solving the displacement of six degrees of freedom. By using the numerical method, the number of iterations can be artificially set and the accuracy of the algorithm can be improved.
      Conclusions  Aiming at the six-degree-of-freedom displacement measurement system, a more accurate measurement model is established. The numerical calculation method has high accuracy, and the maximum error is far less than the sub-micron accuracy requirement of the system. The decoupling method in this paper is of great significance to the high-precision displacement measurement of 6DOF displacement stage with large rotational displacement.

     

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